 # What is Md5?

In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely-used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. As an Internet standard (RFC 1321), MD5 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check the integrity of files.

MD5 was designed by Ronald Rivest in 1991 to replace an earlier hash function, MD4. In 1996, a flaw was found with the design of MD5; while it was not a clearly fatal weakness, cryptographers began to recommend using other algorithms, such as SHA-1 (recent claims suggest that SHA-1 has been broken, however). In 2004, more serious flaws were discovered making further use of the algorithm for security purposes questionable.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Md5

# MD5 Pseudocode

//Note: All variables are unsigned 32 bits and wrap modulo 2^32 when calculating

//Define r as the following
var int r, k
r[ 0..15] := {7, 12, 17, 22, 7, 12, 17, 22, 7, 12, 17, 22, 7, 12, 17, 22}
r[16..31] := {5, 9, 14, 20, 5, 9, 14, 20, 5, 9, 14, 20, 5, 9, 14, 20}
r[32..47] := {4, 11, 16, 23, 4, 11, 16, 23, 4, 11, 16, 23, 4, 11, 16, 23}
r[48..63] := {6, 10, 15, 21, 6, 10, 15, 21, 6, 10, 15, 21, 6, 10, 15, 21}

//Use binary integer part of the sines of integers as constants:
for i from 0 to 63
k[i] := floor(abs(sin(i + 1)) × 2^32)

//Initialize variables:
var int h0 := 0x67452301
var int h1 := 0xEFCDAB89
var int h3 := 0x10325476

//Pre-processing:
append "1" bit to message
append "0" bits until message length in bits ≡ 448 (mod 512)
append bit length of message as 64-bit little-endian integer to message

//Process the message in successive 512-bit chunks:
for each 512-bit chunk of message
break chunk into sixteen 32-bit little-endian words w(i), 0 ≤ i ≤ 15

//Initialize hash value for this chunk:
var int a := h0
var int b := h1
var int c := h2
var int d := h3

//Main loop:
for i from 0 to 63
if 0 ≤ i ≤ 15 then
f := (b and c) or ((not b) and d)
g := i
else if 16 ≤ i ≤ 31
f := (d and b) or ((not d) and c)
g := (5×i + 1) mod 16
else if 32 ≤ i ≤ 47
f := b xor c xor d
g := (3×i + 5) mod 16
else if 48 ≤ i ≤ 63
f := c xor (b or (not d))
g := (7×i) mod 16

temp := d
d := c
c := b
b := ((a + f + k(i) + w(g)) leftrotate r(i)) + b
a := temp

//Add this chunk's hash to result so far:
h0 := h0 + a
h1 := h1 + b
h2 := h2 + c
h3 := h3 + d

var int digest := h0 append h1 append h2 append h3 //(expressed as little-endian)

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